Show Summary Details
Page of



Robin D. Clark

, and Cynthia J. Curry

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 04 December 2020

This chapter reviews background information about the incidence, risk factors, family history, genetics, recurrence risk, and epidemiology of isolated and syndromic hypospadias and some disorders of sex development (DSD)—6,XY DSD and 46,XX DSD. The associations with male factor infertility, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, low birth weight, and low anoscrotal distance are discussed. The differential diagnosis of genital anomalies summarizes common causes, including teratogenic agents, chromosome anomalies, including copy number variants, Mendelian disorders that also affect musculoskeletal, skeletal, and connective tissues, and it gives recommendations for evaluation and management. A clinical case presentation features an infant conceived by in vitro fertilization with severe early IUGR and hypospadias.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.