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Cleft Lip 

Cleft Lip
Chapter:
Cleft Lip
Author(s):

Robin D. Clark

, and Cynthia J. Curry

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199990993.003.0011
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date: 21 May 2019

This chapter reviews background information about the incidence, risk factors, family history, genetics, recurrence risk, and epidemiology of isolated and syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Microforms of cleft lip are described. The distinctive anatomy of bilateral cleft lip is contrasted with premaxillary agenesis, a wider defect caused by absence of the frontonasal process. The discussion on the differential diagnosis of cleft lip summarizes its common causes, including teratogenic agents (alcohol, maternal diabetes, phenytoin), chromosome anomalies (aneuploidy, recurrent deletion syndromes), and Mendelian clefting disorders that include associated malformations in other organ systems. The chapter gives recommendations for evaluation and management. A clinical case presentation features an infant with an oral cleft who has a positive family history of cleft lip and palate with paramedian lip pits due to Van der Woude syndrome.

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