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Optimizing Carbon Dioxide Peripheral Arteriography 

Optimizing Carbon Dioxide Peripheral Arteriography
Chapter:
Optimizing Carbon Dioxide Peripheral Arteriography
Author(s):

Mikin V. Patel

, and Steven Zangan

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199986071.003.0103
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date: 29 July 2021

Angiography relies on the use of contrast medium for visualization of the vessel. Iodinated contrast can be contraindicated in patients with renal impairment or iodinated contrast allergy, so carbon dioxide (CO2) gas can be a useful alternative. A number of technical and postural parameters can optimize CO2 angiography, and vasodilators can be used to improve imaging of peripheral vessels. Although CO2 has distinct advantages, the limitations of CO2 angiography must be well understood. Operators should be aware that CO2 angiography can lead to overestimation of vessel size and can lead to complications such as transient ischemia of tissues, alterations of blood chemistry, neurotoxicity, and “vapor lock.”

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