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Treating Heart Failure and Preventing Cardiovascular Disease 

Treating Heart Failure and Preventing Cardiovascular Disease
Chapter:
Treating Heart Failure and Preventing Cardiovascular Disease
Author(s):

W. Bruce Fye

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199982356.003.0019
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date: 20 April 2021

Heart failure may result from coronary disease, valve disease, or hypertensive heart disease. The first effective pills to treat hypertension and fluid retention were introduced in the 1950s. Cardiac transplantation was first performed in a human in 1967. This radical approach to treat patients with so-called end-stage heart failure presented a series of problems, such as organ rejection and ethical issues surrounding the definition of death. The large gap between the number of patients who might benefit from transplantation and the number of available donor organs contributed to a costly and controversial program to develop an artificial heart. During the final third of the twentieth century, preventive cardiology gained momentum. The goal was to identify cardiac risk factors and to attempt to treat them. Controlled clinical trials became increasingly important in the evaluation of competing treatments. Organizations used trial results as raw materials to produce clinical practice guidelines.

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