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Otitis Externa, Otitis Media, and Mastoiditis 

Otitis Externa, Otitis Media, and Mastoiditis
Chapter:
Otitis Externa, Otitis Media, and Mastoiditis
Author(s):

Susan Peterson

and Staci Reintjes

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199976805.003.0011
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date: 15 October 2019

Otitis Externa is an infection of external auditory canal. Infection typically occurs via penetration of the epithelial barrier. Patients typically present with inflammation of the auricle, external auditory canal, or outer tympanic membrane. First-line therapy includes topical acidic agents and antibiotic drops. Oral antibiotics should be considered for recurrent infections, those resistant to topical therapy, severe disease, extension beyond the external auditory canal, diabetics, or immunocompromised patients. Otitis Media is an infection of the middle ear. Patients typically present with otalgia, otorrhea, fever, irritability, anorexia, and hearing loss. Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid bone. Patients present with pain, swelling, and erythema over the mastoid bone. Fever, irritability, otalgia, and hearing loss are also often present. Infection can be serious and may lead to sepsis, sigmoid sinus thrombosis, and intracranial abscess if not treated appropriately. More common complications include chronic infection, resistant bacteria, and mild hearing loss.

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