Show Summary Details
Page of

Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Presentation of Melanoma 

Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Presentation of Melanoma
Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Presentation of Melanoma

Maki Yamamoto

and Vernon K. Sondak

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 10 July 2020

The incidence of melanoma has been increasing in the United States. Melanoma can affect all age groups, including children. Poor prognostic factors include male gender, older age, increased Breslow thickness, ulceration of primary tumor, and nodal metastases. Identifying patients who are at higher risk may help to identify the population requiring closer screening programs. Patients with excessive ultraviolet radiation exposure (solar or artificial), dysplastic nevi, or a personal or family history of melanoma are at an increased risk for developing melanoma. Various diagnostic tools can aid the clinical exam for primary care physicians and dermatologists, such as ABCDEs, Glasgow 7-point checklist, and the ugly duckling sign. Dermoscopy is being increasingly used to compliment naked-eye physical exam for the diagnosis of melanoma. The development of computer assisted analysis of dermoscopic images and multi-spectral skin lesion analysis can be useful adjuncts but should not replace clinical examinations by experienced dermatologists.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.