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Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Presentation of Melanoma 

Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Presentation of Melanoma
Chapter:
Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Presentation of Melanoma
Author(s):

Maki Yamamoto

and Vernon K. Sondak

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199971015.003.0001
Page of

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date: 18 October 2019

The incidence of melanoma has been increasing in the United States. Melanoma can affect all age groups, including children. Poor prognostic factors include male gender, older age, increased Breslow thickness, ulceration of primary tumor, and nodal metastases. Identifying patients who are at higher risk may help to identify the population requiring closer screening programs. Patients with excessive ultraviolet radiation exposure (solar or artificial), dysplastic nevi, or a personal or family history of melanoma are at an increased risk for developing melanoma. Various diagnostic tools can aid the clinical exam for primary care physicians and dermatologists, such as ABCDEs, Glasgow 7-point checklist, and the ugly duckling sign. Dermoscopy is being increasingly used to compliment naked-eye physical exam for the diagnosis of melanoma. The development of computer assisted analysis of dermoscopic images and multi-spectral skin lesion analysis can be useful adjuncts but should not replace clinical examinations by experienced dermatologists.

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