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Neurologic Disorders Categorized by Anatomical Involvement 

Neurologic Disorders Categorized by Anatomical Involvement
Neurologic Disorders Categorized by Anatomical Involvement

Lyell K. Jones

, Brian A. Crum

, Eduardo E. Benarroch

, and Robert D. Brown

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date: 19 January 2021

The supratentorial region includes all structures of the nervous system inside the skull and above the tentorium cerebelli, primarily the cerebral hemispheres. Brainstem lesions can produce crossed neurologic syndromes: cranial nerve signs are ipsilateral to the lesion, but long-tract signs are usually contralateral. Sensory levels, signs of anterior horn cell involvement, and long-tract signs in the posterior columns or corticospinal tract (or in both) suggest a spinal cord lesion. Peripheral neuropathies are usually characterized by distal weakness and distal sensory changes. They are usually symmetrical and more severe in the legs than in the arms. This chapter has two goals: Review neurologic disease entities by anatomical level (supratentorial, posterior fossa, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system) and recognize signs and symptoms of common neurologic disease entities.

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