Show Summary Details
Page of

Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders 

Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders
Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders

Qi Qian

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 19 January 2021

Volume expansion can be general or regional. Volume depletion is associated primarily with gastrointestinal tract (GI) fluid loss, excessive sweating, and renal sodium loss related to diuretic use or, rarely, renal salt wasting. Hypokalemia can be associated with pseudohypokalemia, transcellular shift, inadequate intake or GI loss, and renal loss. Hyperkalemia can be associated with pseudohyperkalemia, excessive potassium intake, transcellular shift, and impaired secretion of renal potassium. Blood pH is derived from the ratio of 2 variables, serum bicarbonate (HCO3) (base) and PCO2 (acid). Under conditions in which 1 of these variables increases or decreases, the other variable predictably and compensatorily also increases or decreases and minimizes the change in the ratio, hence minimizing blood pH alterations. This chapter has three goals: Define fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders; cite treatments for fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders; and explain how to apply these concepts to clinical scenarios.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.