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Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders 

Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders
Chapter:
Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders
Author(s):

Qi Qian

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199948949.003.0038
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date: 17 January 2020

Volume expansion can be general or regional. Volume depletion is associated primarily with gastrointestinal tract (GI) fluid loss, excessive sweating, and renal sodium loss related to diuretic use or, rarely, renal salt wasting. Hypokalemia can be associated with pseudohypokalemia, transcellular shift, inadequate intake or GI loss, and renal loss. Hyperkalemia can be associated with pseudohyperkalemia, excessive potassium intake, transcellular shift, and impaired secretion of renal potassium. Blood pH is derived from the ratio of 2 variables, serum bicarbonate (HCO3) (base) and PCO2 (acid). Under conditions in which 1 of these variables increases or decreases, the other variable predictably and compensatorily also increases or decreases and minimizes the change in the ratio, hence minimizing blood pH alterations. This chapter has three goals: Define fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders; cite treatments for fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders; and explain how to apply these concepts to clinical scenarios.

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