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Benign Hematology 

Benign Hematology
Chapter:
Benign Hematology
Author(s):

Alexandra P. Wolanskyj

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199948949.003.0034
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date: 05 December 2019

Anemia is a reduction in the mass of healthy circulating red blood cells (RBCs). Anemia occurs as a result of 1 of 3 mechanisms: inadequate production of RBCs by the bone marrow (ie, marrow failure, intrinsic RBC synthetic defects, or lack of essential RBC components such as vitamins); blood loss; and premature destruction of RBCs (ie, hemolysis). The primary cause of major transfusion reactions and transfusion-related deaths is medical error, which includes bypassed safeguards, similar patient names, and verbal or faxed communications. This chapter has three goals: describe the approach to evaluation of microcytic, macrocytic, and normocytic anemias; differentiate causes of hemolytic anemia; and review various types of transfusion reactions.

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