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HIV Infectiona 

HIV Infectiona
HIV Infectiona

Mary J. Kasten

and Zelalem Temesgen

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date: 17 January 2021

AIDS was first reported in 1981, when gay men presented with Pneumocystis pneumonia or Kaposi sarcoma. HIV was identified as the cause of AIDS in 1984. Testing for HIV became available in the United States in 1985. Considerable gains in the understanding and treatment of HIV have been made during the past 30 years. This chapter has four goals: identify how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is transmitted and what behaviors and conditions affect the risk of transmission; review the natural history of HIV infection and AIDS, including AIDS-defining conditions; recognize when treatment for HIV is indicated and understand the basic principles of antiretroviral treatment; recognize when prophylaxis is indicated for opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients and for which infections it should be given.

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