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Developmental Abnormalities Due to Mutations in the Aristaless-Related Homeobox Gene 

Developmental Abnormalities Due to Mutations in the Aristaless-Related Homeobox Gene
Chapter:
Developmental Abnormalities Due to Mutations in the Aristaless-Related Homeobox Gene
Author(s):

Cheryl Shoubridge

, Michael Field

, Richard J. Leventer

, and Jozef Gecz

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199934522.003.0107
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date: 07 March 2021

Intellectual disability is a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders of the brain that combined affect approximately one in 50 individuals worldwide. X-linked intellectual disabilities represent a group of disorders where mutations arise on the X-chromosome. XLID is clinically complex and genetically heterogeneous. In excess of 100 genes are currently known. One of the most frequently mutated XLID genes (after e.g. FMR1 or MECP2) is the Aristaless related homeobox (ARX) gene. More than 110 mutations have been reported in ARX. The phenotype always involves intellectual disability and often also epilepsy, infantile spasms, hand dystonia, lissencephaly, autism or dysarthria. This chapter summarizes currently known mutations in ARX and their clinical manifestations and explores what is known about the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms.

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