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Tourette’s Syndrome and Other TIC Disorders 

Tourette’s Syndrome and Other TIC Disorders
Chapter:
Tourette’s Syndrome and Other TIC Disorders
Author(s):

Roger M. Kurlan

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199925643.003.0006
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date: 20 April 2021

Tourette’s syndrome is a childhood-onset condition characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. Tics are a heterogeneous phenomenon, taking on a variety of forms. Tics should be differentiated from other movement disorders, particularly myoclonus, dystonia, and stereotypies as well as compulsive actions. Tourette’s syndrome is the main member of a small group of primary tic disorders, but there are a variety of other conditions that can cause tics. Tourette’s syndrome is now viewed as a neuropsychiatric spectrum disorder that includes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and perhaps other behavioral problems in association with tics. Current evidence points to heightened striatal dopamine neurotransmission associated with loss of cortical inhibition of basal ganglia output as underlying Tourette’s syndrome. There is a strong genetic influence. Treatment approaches include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgical options. A key aspect of managing Tourette’s syndrome is recognizing and appropriately treating comorbid psychiatric and behavioral conditions.

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