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Cross-Cultural Research Methods and Practice 

Cross-Cultural Research Methods and Practice
Cross-Cultural Research Methods and Practice

Martin J. Prince

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date: 23 June 2021

There are few examples in the cross-cultural mental health literature of demonstrably valid, culture-fair comparison. Much more could, in principle, be done to demonstrate measurement invariance, and to identify and explore sources of heterogeneity. The purpose of this chapter is to review the necessary procedures to establish measurement equivalence across cultures, including some recent methodological developments in the quantitative assessment of cross-cultural construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis can be used to compare factors and factor loadings. The hypothesis of “measurement invariance” across countries and cultures can be tested explicitly using confirmatory factor analysis (common underlying factors and factor loadings) and Rasch Models (Common hierarchy of items). Despite measurement invariance, threshold effects arising from cultural differences in norms, expectations, or expressions of mental distress may still be a problem. The chapter also examines some of the potential applications for cross-cultural research.

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