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Immunodeficiency: Innate, Primary, and Secondary: Comorbid and Coexisting 

Immunodeficiency: Innate, Primary, and Secondary: Comorbid and Coexisting
Immunodeficiency: Innate, Primary, and Secondary: Comorbid and Coexisting

Jean M. Brown

and John W. Sleasman

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date: 24 June 2021

Clinical manifestations of immunodeficiency diseases are recurrent infections with sinopulmonary conditions as the predominant manifestation. Immune deficiencies also result in immune dysregulation, with asthma as a common feature. Many immune deficiencies can lead to chronic pulmonary infections that mimic asthma and remain unrecognized. Immunodeficiency disorders, based on their etiology, are classified as primary or secondary. Primary immunodeficiency diseases are usually due to heritable defects in innate or adaptive immunity resulting in distinct susceptibility to certain types of infections, immune dysregulation, or increased risk for malignancy. Secondary immunodeficiencies are acquired conditions, which occur in otherwise normal individuals and can lead to similar clinical manifestations, that is, chronic sinopulmonary infection. Immune deficiencies are often underdiagnosed and misdiagnosed, especially if pulmonary manifestations are involved.

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