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Environmental Protective and Risk Factors in Asthma: Comorbid and Coexisting 

Environmental Protective and Risk Factors in Asthma: Comorbid and Coexisting
Environmental Protective and Risk Factors in Asthma: Comorbid and Coexisting

Tari Haahtela

and Ömer Kalayci

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date: 24 June 2021

Traditionally, environmental exposure has been considered a potential risk factor to develop asthma and allergy and, second, to exacerbate them and cause chronic disease. Exposure to common allergens, such as dust mites, pollens, molds, animal dusts, and foods, generates symptoms in sensitized individuals; this does not occur initially, and only occurs in sensitized individuals. The same applies to ambient air and indoor air pollutants. They irritate, aggravate inflammation, worsen symptoms, and increase the burden for asthmatic and allergic patients but are probably not significant as primary causes of these diseases. This chapter explores environmental determinants related to asthma and allergic comorbidities, especially immunoglobulin E–associated conditions, and emphasizes the development of tolerance. Finally, practical advice to improve asthma health is provided.

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