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Neurocritical Care 

Neurocritical Care
Neurocritical Care

Steven L. Shein

and Robert S. B. Clark

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date: 24 May 2022

Brain injury is the most common proximate cause of death in pediatric intensive care units. For children who survive critical illness, long-standing brain damage and residual brain dysfunction can affect quality of life significantly. Therefore, minimizing neurological injury to improve patient outcomes is a priority of neurocritical care. This may be accomplished by implementing specific targeted therapies, avoiding pathophysiological conditions that exacerbate neurological injury, and using a multidisciplinary team that focuses on contemporary care of children with neurological injury and disease. This chapter reviews pertinent anatomy and physiology; general principles of pediatric neurocritical care; and specifics for caring for children with traumatic brain injury, hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy, status epilepticus, meningitis/encephalitis, stroke, and acute hydrocephalus.

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