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Genomics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity 

Genomics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity
Chapter:
Genomics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity
Author(s):

Venkatesan Radha

and Viswanathan Mohan

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199896028.003.0022
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date: 30 October 2020

The use and application of genetic information to clinical settings has been limited to prediction of monogenic forms of T2D and obesity. Noteworthy example is the case with neonatal diabetes and extreme childhood obesity. The predictive value of established diabetic susceptibility and obesity susceptibility loci and their ability to discriminate between individuals who are at higher risk of T2D or obesity in adult life versus those who are at lower risk, is still not good enough to be translated to clinical settings and personalized medicine. A substantial portion of the predictive heritability of type 2 diabetes and obesity and interindividual variability in BMI remain elusive. This missing heritability raises the question if the heritability of these diseases are overestimated or hitherto unexplained genetic variations are still present which remain unexplored by the current methodologies for large scale association analyses. Deep sequencing, Fine mapping of the regions identified by GWAS and the functional studies of specific genetic variations are underway and would bring to light the role of the GWAS established genetic loci. Thus the primary outputs of these discoveries are in gaining new insights in the biological pathways that underlie these diseases. With each new discovery beings a number of functional and clinical/ epidemiological follow up studies that will help in understanding the mechanisms involved.

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