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Genes, Genetics, and Human Genomics 

Genes, Genetics, and Human Genomics
Chapter:
Genes, Genetics, and Human Genomics
Author(s):

Dhavendra Kumar

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199896028.003.0001
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date: 12 July 2020

New discoveries and innovations in biological sciences during the five decades preceding the 21st century and the new Millennium have focussed on genetics and genomics. It took just over 50 years following the unravelling of the structure of the molecule of nucleic acids (DNA), the key unit of the biological life, to embark on sequencing of major organisms’ entire genetic constitution or genome. The word Genome includes Gene and Ome implying complete knowledge of all genes and related elements in any single organism. Inevitably this led to enthusiastic expansion of the whole science and led to the emergence of Genomics. The suffix omics, derived from ancient Greek language, refers to in depth knowledge. Not surprisingly this followed plethora of related omics, for example proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics and so on. Currently we have over 30 such disciplines with the omics suffix. Key concepts of heredity, genes, genetics and genomics, specifically human genomics are introduced setting the broad landscape of Genomic Medicine.

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