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Nutritional Genomics 

Nutritional Genomics
Chapter:
Nutritional Genomics
Author(s):

Zhenglong Gu

, Kaixiong Ye

, and Patrick J. Stover

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199896028.003.0012
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date: 30 October 2020

Nutritional Genomics is a multidisciplinary field that draws upon an extensive and rich foundation of knowledge in nutritional anthropology, population genetics, nutritional biochemistry, human clinical nutrition and metabolism, human genetics and development, and nutritional toxicology among other disciplines. This new field emerged as the sequence of human genomes, and the genomes of other organisms, became available. Metabolic- and nutrition-related disorders are complex traits with multiple interacting environmental and genetic determinants. Both diet and the genetic background of the individual modify their onset and severity. Therefore, Nutritional Genomics, like most “omics” fields, is focused on the biology of the individual, but is distinguished by its unique potential to advance our understanding of disease prevention and healthy aging through manipulation of gene-diet interactions. In addition, nutritional genomics has therapeutic applications through the rational design of dietary interventions to manage chronic disease. Advances in nutritional genomics research are anticipated to illuminate the mechanisms underlying the acute and long lasting diet/nutrition-genome interactions that promote health and revolutionize both clinical and public health nutrition practice and culminate in: 1) genetically-informed nutrient and food-based dietary guidelines for disease prevention and healthy aging, 2) improved and/or individualized nutritional therapeutic regimes for disease management, and 3) better targeted public health nutrition interventions (e.g. micronutrient fortification and supplementation) that maximize benefit and minimize adverse outcomes within human populations.

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