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Secular Trends in Stroke Risk and Risk Factors for Stroke 

Secular Trends in Stroke Risk and Risk Factors for Stroke
Chapter:
Secular Trends in Stroke Risk and Risk Factors for Stroke
Author(s):

Raphael A. Carandang

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199895847.003.0023
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date: 10 April 2020

In this chapter, the temporal trends in stroke incidence, mortality, severity, prevalence and lifetime risk, and trends in established risk factors for stroke—including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, obesity, physical inactivity, obstructive sleep apnea, smoking, and kidney disease—are reviewed. Stroke mortality, incidence and severity have decreased over time, partly due to improved detection of mild stroke. Lifetime risk of stroke has however remained stable secondary to increased life expectancy. Overall the prevalence of stroke is increasing, especially in low- to middle- income countries. Major known risk factors for stroke show divergent trends; hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking show decreasing incidence, but diabetes, kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, obesity, physical inactivity, and obstructive sleep apnea are increasing, and there adolescents have increasing blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes. There are composite stroke risk profile scores and recommendations to improve cerebrovascular health.

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