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Neuroanatomy of Specific Reading Disabilities I: Anatomical Deviations 

Neuroanatomy of Specific Reading Disabilities I: Anatomical Deviations
Chapter:
Neuroanatomy of Specific Reading Disabilities I: Anatomical Deviations
Author(s):

Yitzchak Frank

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199862955.003.0005
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date: 18 January 2020

Specific Learning Disabilities result from cognitive deficiencies—specific deficiencies in brain functions important for learning. Are these deficiencies the result of a structural brain abnormality, or of irregular or abnormal programming of brain networks related to learning? Discussing this question necessitates some understanding of the normal anatomy of learning. Learning to read, calculate, and write demands coordinated functioning of many brain areas. An optimal learning condition involves the ability to perceive, process, and analyze sensory information, and the ability to express learned material by the execution of a response, which can be done verbally (e.g., by answering a question), by writing, or by other means of execution. The student has to be alert, focused, motivated, and emotionally healthy. As one can imagine, there needs to be a large number of brain systems, in different brain locations, participating in and supervising these actions.

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