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Neuropsychological Abnormalities Underlying Specific Learning Disabilities 

Neuropsychological Abnormalities Underlying Specific Learning Disabilities
Chapter:
Neuropsychological Abnormalities Underlying Specific Learning Disabilities
Author(s):

Yitzchak Frank

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199862955.003.0002
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date: 18 January 2020

Specific learning disabilities (SLD) are a group of conditions usually distinguished by academic difficulties. Such difficulties can involve reading, (including basic reading skills and comprehension), writing, and arithmetic (including mathematical calculation and reasoning). Other names assigned to these types of learning disabilities are dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia, respectively. Most learning disabled children have a combination of these academic difficulties (Shapiro & Gallico, 1986) and the most common is a reading disability or dyslexia with other academic disabilities, for instance spelling or mathematical disability (Badian, 1983). The term “SLD” is, in many ways, a minimalistic term because it refers to, and is measured by, academic underachievement. In reality, individuals with SLD frequently have other difficulties affecting their life. They may have difficulties with motor coordination, motor execution, and study organization. They may have behavioral problems, social deficits, low self-esteem, and oppositional attitudes. They are frequently referred to as being, in general, “immature.”

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