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Neurochemical and Metabolic Imaging in Bipolar Disorder 

Neurochemical and Metabolic Imaging in Bipolar Disorder
Chapter:
Neurochemical and Metabolic Imaging in Bipolar Disorder
Author(s):

Jieun E. Kim

, In Kyoon Lyoo

, and Perry F. Renshaw

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199797608.003.0039
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date: 13 October 2019

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an important neuroimaging technique offering the promise of revolutionizing how we study human brain function by allowing the examination of molecular processes in the live human brain. This chapter reviews both proton (1H) and phosphorus (31P) MRS studies in bipolar disorder and proposes a neurochemical model of this illness. Integration of the MRS findings including alterations in cerebral levels of N-acetyl aspartate, glutamate/glutamine, choline-containing compounds, myo-inositol, and lactate, measured using 1H MRS and alterations in cerebral levels of phosphocreatine, phosphomonoesters, and intracellular pH, measured using 31P MRS, leads to a well-supported hypothesis of an underlying mitochondrial impairment in bipolar disorder.

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