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Helen Lavretsky

, Martha Sajatovic

, and Charles F. Reynolds

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date: 16 October 2021

FOLLOWING THIS comprehensive review of recent advances in research in late-life mood disorders, we can say that we have come a long way in understanding risk factors and pathophysiology in late-life mood disorders. Various psychosocial and neurobiological risk factors for developing mood disorders in later life are relatively well understood. Neuroimaging studies have helped us to gain a better understanding of the anatomy, functional circuitry, and biochemistry of mood disorders in older people. New developments in information technology have helped to improve the assessment and management of late-life mood disorders. However, more needs to be done in developing personalized pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for late-life depression and bipolar disorders. Promoting understanding of genetic and epigenetic contribution to late-life mood disorders can lead to the development of selective and indicated preventive approaches that increase resilience in later life. Integration of biomarkers in the development of interventions remains a challenge. Understanding the contribution of cognitive impairment and biological aging-related physiological changes is still in the early stage. Global mental health initiatives are likely to be more prominently present in prevention research. Next we outline the current state of art in research and clinical care, and the immediate and distant goals for future research....

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