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Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Bias among Physicians 

Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Bias among Physicians
Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Bias among Physicians

Fatima Rodriguez

and Alexander R. Green

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date: 24 September 2021

A growing body of evidence documents disparities in medical care related to patient ethnicity, even when controlling for disease presentation, severity, and other potential confounding variables.1,2 Research demonstrates that minority patients receive fewer cardiac procedures than whites with similar disease presentations,3,4 less frequent referrals for renal transplantation,5,6 lower quality of care for congestive heart failure and pneumonia,7 and fewer preventive health services despite control for access-related factors.8 Similarly, studies report that ethnic minority patients are less likely to receive appropriate analgesia for long-bone fractures in the emergency department9,10 as well as for cancer and postoperative pain.11,12 Although attention from national quality improvement initiatives has led to more aggressive use of analgesia in the emergency department, these well-documented disparities appear resistant to change.13

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