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Cross-cultural Use and Validity of Pain Scales and Questionnaires—Norwegian Case Study 

Cross-cultural Use and Validity of Pain Scales and Questionnaires—Norwegian Case Study
Cross-cultural Use and Validity of Pain Scales and Questionnaires—Norwegian Case Study

Hesook Suzie Kim

, Donna Schwartz-Barcott

, and Inger Margrethe Holter

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date: 03 August 2021

Although the principal objective of developing pain scales is their application in clinical practice, pain scales for research are also necessary. Measurement of pain for research purposes requires valid, objective instruments that can assess individual-to-individual differences and comparisons of pain responses. Various types of pain measurement tools have been developed and applied in studying pain experiences and pain responses. Reliable and valid detection of variations in pain across individuals, across different times in the same individual, and in different types of pain have been major issues in developing and applying pain scales for research. Cross-cultural use of pain scales is critical for developing knowledge about pain in different cultures and for understanding cross-cultural similarities and differences.4,5 It is essential to develop knowledge about pain experiences across diverse cultures, in order to enhance our understanding of the nature of pain so that we can improve its management in the current multicultural scene.6,7,8,9 Cross-cultural similarities and differences in pain response and experience are emerging in the literature and point to more in-depth investigations.10,11,12,13,14 Cross-cultural knowledge on pain is enriched when researchers are able to compare research results from cross-culturally validated instruments and interpret findings from the cultural context. In this chapter, our discussion will focus on cross-cultural development and use of pain scales. We begin with a general discussion of existing pain assessment instruments.

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