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Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome and Role of Cholesterol in Autism 

Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome and Role of Cholesterol in Autism
Chapter:
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome and Role of Cholesterol in Autism
Author(s):

Geeta Sarphare

, Ryan Lee

, and Elaine Tierney

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199744312.003.0012
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date: 26 January 2021

Cholesterol is manufactured throughout the body, but predominantly in the liver, and is essential for many metabolic processes. Cholesterol plays a critical role in forming membranes and myelin sheaths and is a precursor molecule for the synthesis of steroid hormones, neuroactive steroids, oxysterols, and vitamin D. It is also essential in the production of bile acids, which in turn helps the body absorb cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins. Cholesterol is essential in embryonic and fetal development and is also critical in regulating lipid raft processes such as signaling and trafficking (Korade & Kenworthy, 2008). Cholesterol biosynthesis begins with the formation of squalene and ends with the reduction of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) into cholesterol by the enzyme 7DHC reductase, and then its spontaneous isomer, 8-dehydrocholesterol (8DHC). Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS, Mendelian Inheritance in Man #270400) is an autosomal recessive disorder due to an inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis (Elias et al., 1993; Irons, Elias, Salen, Tint, & Batta, 1993; Tint et al., 1994). Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome has an estimated incidence among individuals of European ancestry in Canada and the United States of 1 in 15,000 to 1 in 60,000 births (Bzdúch, Behulova, & Skodova, 2000; Lowry & Yong, 1980; Opitz, 1999; Ryan, Bartlett, Clayton, Eaton, Mills, Donnai, & Burn, 1998) and a carrier frequency of 1 in 30 to 1 in 50 (Nowaczyk & Waye, 2001).

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