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PTEN and Autism With Macrocepaly 

PTEN and Autism With Macrocepaly
Chapter:
PTEN and Autism With Macrocepaly
Author(s):

Craig M. Powell

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199744312.003.0010
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date: 30 November 2020

Phosphatase and Tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a gene encoding an intracellular signaling molecule. PTEN was originally discovered as the gene responsible for a subset of familial hamartoma (tumor) syndromes associated with increased risk for certain cancers (Nelen et al., 1997) and as a gene often mutated in human cancers and tumor cell lines (Li et al., 1997; Steck et al., 1997). More recently, mutations in PTEN have been linked genetically to the clinical phenotype of autism or developmental delay with macrocephaly (Boccone et al., 2006; Butler et al., 2005; Buxbaum et al., 2007; Goffin, Hoefsloot, Bosgoed, Swillen, & Fryns, 2001; Herman, Butter, et al., 2007; McBride et al., 2010; Orrico et al., 2009; Stein, Elias, Saenz, Pickler, & Reynolds, 2010; Varga, Pastore, Prior, Herman, & McBride, 2009; Zori, Marsh, Graham, Marliss, & Eng, 1998). This chapter examines the role of PTEN in intracellular signaling, the link between PTEN signaling pathways and other autism-related genes and signaling pathways, the genetic relationship between PTEN and autism, model systems in which effects of Pten deletion on the brain have been studied, and promising preclinical data identifying therapeutic targets for patients with autism/macrocephaly associated with PTEN mutations.

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