Show Summary Details
Page of



Claudia L. Swanton

, Barbara J. Timm

, and Heidi K. Roeber Rice

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2016. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 22 October 2019

The use of vaccines can be traced back to China and India before 200 BC. Vaccination, now considered one of the most effective public health interventions, became common practice in the 1940s with the introduction of vaccines for diphtheria and tetanus. Since that time, many infectious diseases have been well controlled through vaccination. This chapter focuses on live and attenuated bacterial and viral vaccines and those that are composed of toxoids. Hepatitis B, pneumococcal disease, and influenza are the most common vaccine-preventable diseases in adults. Rates of childhood vaccination remain suboptimal. Ideally, vaccination begins before infants are dismissed home after birth. Targeted awareness campaigns can be used to educate providers and the public about the importance of immunization.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.