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Immunization 

Immunization
Chapter:
Immunization
Author(s):

Claudia L. Swanton

, Barbara J. Timm

, and Heidi K. Roeber Rice

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199743018.003.0007
Page of

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date: 22 October 2019

The use of vaccines can be traced back to China and India before 200 BC. Vaccination, now considered one of the most effective public health interventions, became common practice in the 1940s with the introduction of vaccines for diphtheria and tetanus. Since that time, many infectious diseases have been well controlled through vaccination. This chapter focuses on live and attenuated bacterial and viral vaccines and those that are composed of toxoids. Hepatitis B, pneumococcal disease, and influenza are the most common vaccine-preventable diseases in adults. Rates of childhood vaccination remain suboptimal. Ideally, vaccination begins before infants are dismissed home after birth. Targeted awareness campaigns can be used to educate providers and the public about the importance of immunization.

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