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Epidemiology 2: Study Design 

Epidemiology 2: Study Design
Chapter:
Epidemiology 2: Study Design
Author(s):

Muktar H. Aliyu

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199743018.003.0004
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date: 22 October 2019

The usefulness of evidence arising from scientific research is influenced by several factors, and foremost among these factors is the design of the epidemiologic study from which the findings are drawn. In evidence-based medicine, the quality of scientific evidence is often graded on the base of the type of study design and includes appraisal of methods by which studies of exposure and outcomes are planned and implemented. Several factors must be considered when designing a scientific study, including the hypothesis being tested, study cost, time frame, subject characteristics, choice of variables or measurements, and ethical concerns. In this chapter, the different types of study designs commonly encountered in clinical research, common measures of morbidity and mortality in epidemiology, and errors (random and systematic) that may threaten conclusions derived from inferences arising from epidemiologic studies are discussed.

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