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Anatomy and Physiology of the Peripheral Nerve and Types of Nerve Pathology 

Anatomy and Physiology of the Peripheral Nerve and Types of Nerve Pathology
Chapter:
Anatomy and Physiology of the Peripheral Nerve and Types of Nerve Pathology
Author(s):

Jun Kimura

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199738687.003.0004
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date: 20 September 2021

Traumatic lesions of the nerve usually result in structural changes in the axon with or without separation of its supporting connective tissue sheath. Nontraumatic disorders of the peripheral nerve may affect the cell body, axon, Schwann cell, connective tissue, or vascular supply singly or in combination. Electrophysiologic abnormalities depend on the kind and degree of nerve damage. Hence, the results of nerve conduction studies closely parallel the structural abnormalities of the nerve. Histologic changes in the nerve and the nature of conduction abnormalities allow subdivision of peripheral nerve lesions into two principal types: axonal degeneration and segmental demyelination. This chapter will deal with the basic anatomy and physiology of the peripheral nerve to discuss types of conduction abnormalities.

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