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Neuromuscular Diseases Characterized by Abnormal Muscle Activities 

Neuromuscular Diseases Characterized by Abnormal Muscle Activities
Chapter:
Neuromuscular Diseases Characterized by Abnormal Muscle Activities
Author(s):

Jun Kimura

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199738687.003.0028
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date: 27 July 2021

This chapter discusses neuromuscular diseases characterized by abnormal muscle activities, which include myotonia, Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, myokymia, neuromyotonia, cramps, and muscle movement without action potential such as contracture, rippling muscle disease, and myoedema. In addition, entities associated with central hyperexcitability comprise tetanus, tetany, hemifacial and hemimasticatory spasm, and stiffperson syndrome. Several electrophysiologic techniques help assess involuntary movement and determine the site of abnormal discharges. Nerve blocks will eliminate abnormal muscular activity originating in the central nervous system or the proximal part of the peripheral nerve. In this instance, repetitive nerve stimulation proximal to the block fails to induce the abnormal muscle activity. Discharges from the distal nerve segment cease after the block of neuromuscular transmission. In contrast, curarization does not affect abnormal discharges originating from the intrinsic muscle fibers.

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