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Examination of Nonlimb Muscles 

Examination of Nonlimb Muscles
Examination of Nonlimb Muscles

Jun Kimura

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date: 28 November 2021

This chapter reviews the nonlimb muscles readily accessible to needle examination, which include the muscles of mastication, face, soft palate, and tongue. Studies of laryngeal muscles and extraocular muscles require the assistance of an otolaryngologist and an ophthalmologist for proper needle placement. These muscles have the same physiologic and pharmacologic properties as the peripheral skeletal muscles.The intercostal nerves derived from the anterior rami of the spinal nerve innervate the abdominal muscles, whereas the posterior rami supply the paraspinal muscles. The study of these muscles and the external anal sphincter requires no special instrumentation. Documentation of electromyographic abnormalities in the paraspinal muscles identifies a radicular lesion that affects the spinal nerve at a point proximal to its bifurcation.

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