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Fetal Assessment and Care 

Fetal Assessment and Care
Fetal Assessment and Care

Laura S. Dean

, Robert D’Angelo

, and Craig M. Palmer

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date: 22 October 2021

Introduction 342

Normal Fetal Growth and Development 343

Uteroplacental Physiology 344

Fetal Circulation 346

Prepartum Fetal Assessment 346

Intrapartum Fetal Heart Monitoring 351

In Utero Resuscitation 357

Obstetric anesthesia is unique among anesthetic subspecialties in its responsibility to not one, but two patients: the parturient and the fetus. Not only must anesthetic interventions be in the best interests of the mother but they must also, as far as possible, be in the best interests of the unborn infant. Often, the “best” interests of these two patients are at odds with each other, and there is no single “best” course of action. The appropriate anesthetic interventions will depend upon the clinical circumstances, and the judgment and experience of the individual anesthesiologist....

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