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Investigation of renal disease 

Investigation of renal disease
Investigation of renal disease

Guy H. Neild

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date: 31 March 2020

Chapter 3 covers landmark papers based on a clinical approach to investigating renal disease: if any patient has significant damage to their kidneys then: (i) there may be blood or protein in the urine; (ii) if the damage is severe enough to cause renal impairment, then urea and creatinine levels are raised; and (iii) patients often have hypertension. All renal disease can be categorised by the three Us: ultrasound, urine analysis (dipstick), and urine microscopy. Specific diagnosis is then made with renal imaging, renal biopsy, and immunological tests.

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