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Menopause 

Menopause
Chapter:
Menopause
Author(s):

Sally Collins

, Sabaratnam Arulkumaran

, Kevin Hayes

, Simon Jackson

, and Lawrence Impey

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199698400.003.0021
Page of

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date: 01 March 2021

Menopause: overview

Menopause: short-term consequences

Menopause: long-term consequences

Menopause: history taking and investigations

Premature menopause

Hormone replacement therapy: overview

Hormone replacement therapy: benefits

Hormone replacement therapy: risks

Hormone replacement therapy: uncertainties

Alternative medical treatments to hormone replacement therapy

All women will go through the menopause and the average age is 52yrs. The menopause is the cessation of the menstrual cycle and is caused by ovarian failure leading to oestrogen deficiency. Worldwide life expectancy is increasing and women live longer than men. A woman’s average life expectancy at birth in the UK is currently 81yrs and is estimated to reach 85yrs by 2031. Thus UK women can expect more than 30yrs of post-menopausal life. This population expansion will lead to an increasing importance of the health problems that affect post-menopausal women....

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