Show Summary Details
Page of



Sally Collins

, Sabaratnam Arulkumaran

, Kevin Hayes

, Simon Jackson

, and Lawrence Impey

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 01 March 2021

Menopause: overview

Menopause: short-term consequences

Menopause: long-term consequences

Menopause: history taking and investigations

Premature menopause

Hormone replacement therapy: overview

Hormone replacement therapy: benefits

Hormone replacement therapy: risks

Hormone replacement therapy: uncertainties

Alternative medical treatments to hormone replacement therapy

All women will go through the menopause and the average age is 52yrs. The menopause is the cessation of the menstrual cycle and is caused by ovarian failure leading to oestrogen deficiency. Worldwide life expectancy is increasing and women live longer than men. A woman’s average life expectancy at birth in the UK is currently 81yrs and is estimated to reach 85yrs by 2031. Thus UK women can expect more than 30yrs of post-menopausal life. This population expansion will lead to an increasing importance of the health problems that affect post-menopausal women....

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.