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The management of pain 

The management of pain
The management of pain

Edwina Brown

, Fliss Murtagh

, Emma Murphy

, and Max Watson

Page of

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date: 20 January 2020

Introduction 104

Causes of pain 106

Types of pain 108

Assessment of pain 110

What hinders pain management? 112

Principles of management: the WHO analgesic ladder 114

WHO analgesic ladder: steps 1 and 2 116

WHO step 3: opioids for moderate–severe pain + non-opioid ± adjuvant ...

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