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Lung 

Chapter:
Lung
Author(s):

Isma Quasim

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199692958.003.0012
Page of

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date: 19 November 2019

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical condition comprising respiratory distress, hypoxaemia refractory to oxygen, decreased lung compliance and the appearance of diffuse infiltrates on a chest X-ray. The diagnosis, investigation, and management are reviewed. Ventilatorassociated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as a ‘pneumonia which develops 48 hours or more after intubation with an endotracheal or tracheostomy tube, and which was not present before’. In the US up to 30% of ventilated ITU patients have a VAP. Patients who develop VAP have significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation and ITU stay. Mortality is increased in patients by 30% if they have a VAP and can reach more than 70% if multiresistant pathogens are involved.

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