Show Summary Details
Page of

Symbols and abbreviations 

Symbols and abbreviations
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2016. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

Subscriber: null; date: 23 October 2019

  • Symbols and abbreviations

    cross reference

  • male

  • female

  • Symbols and abbreviations

    bomb (controversial topic)

  • leading to

  • decreased

  • increased

  • Symbols and abbreviations

    website

  • 3D

    three-dimensional

  • ACC

    adenoid cystic carcinoma

  • ACE

    angiotensin-converting enzyme

  • ACE-27

    Adult Co-morbidity Evaluation

  • ACJ

    amelo-cemental junction

  • ADA

    American Dental Association

  • ADP

    adenosine diphosphate

  • AFB

    acid-fast bacilli

  • AJCC

    American Joint Committee on Cancer

  • ALA

    aminolevulinic acid

  • ALARP

    as low as reasonably possible

  • ALFH

    anterior lower facial height

  • ALP

    alkaline phosphatase

  • ANB

    point A to nasion to point B

  • ANUG

    acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

  • AOB

    anterior open bite

  • AP

    antero-posterior

  • ARDS

    acute respiratory distress syndrome

  • ASA

    American Association of Anaesthesiologists

  • ATLS

    advanced trauma life support

  • AUFH

    anterior upper facial height

  • AVPU

    Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive

  • BAD

    British Association of Dermatologists

  • BCC

    basal cell carcinoma

  • BCL3

    a protein coding gene

  • BCLP

    bilateral cleft lip and palate

  • bd

    twice a day

  • BDA

    British Dental Association

  • BLCP

    bilateral cleft lip and palate

  • BMI

    body mass index

  • BMJ

    British Medical Journal

  • BP

    blood pressure

  • BSSO

    bilateral sagittal split osteotomy

  • C&S

    culture and sensitivity

  • CAD

    computer-aided design

  • CAM

    computer-aided manufacturing

  • CBCT

    cone beam computed tomography

  • CBT

    cognitive behavioural therapy

  • CCF

    congestive cardiac failure

  • CEOC

    calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst

  • CEOT

    calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour

  • CL

    cleft lip

  • CLAPA

    Cleft Lip and Palate Association

  • CLP

    cleft lip and palate

  • CMCC

    chronic muco cutaneous candidosis

  • CMM

    cutaneous malignant melanoma

  • CMV

    cytomegalovirus

  • CNS

    central nervous system

  • CO2

    carbon dioxide

  • COPD

    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • COX

    cyclo-oxygenase

  • CP

    cleft palate

  • CSF

    cerebrospinal fluid

  • CT

    computed tomography

  • CTA

    computed tomography angiography

  • CTD

    connective tissue disorder

  • CVA

    cardiovascular accident

  • CVS

    cardiovascular system

  • CXR

    chest X-ray

  • dB HL

    decibels hearing level

  • DCIA

    deep circumflex iliac artery

  • DM

    diabetes mellitus

  • DUSS

    duplex ultrasound scanning

  • DVT

    deep venous thrombosis

  • EAM

    external auditory meatus

  • EAT

    extra-alveolar time

  • EBV

    Epstein–Barr virus

  • ECG

    electrocardiogram

  • ELND

    elective lymph node dissection

  • EM

    erythema multiforme

  • EMLA

    eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics

  • END

    elective neck dissection

  • ENT

    ear, nose, and throat

  • EORTC

    European Organisation for Research Treatment of Cancer

  • ESR

    erythrocyte sedimentation rate

  • ET

    endotracheal

  • ETT

    endotracheal tube

  • EUA

    examination under anaesthesia

  • EUT

    Eustachian tube

  • FACT-HNS

    Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, H + N Scale

  • FBC

    full blood count

  • FDG

    fluoro-deoxy-glucose

  • FESS

    functional endoscopic sinus surgery

  • FFP

    fresh frozen plasma

  • FGFR

    fibroblast growth factor receptor

  • FH

    family history

  • FNA

    fine needle aspiration

  • FNAB

    fine needle aspiration biopsy

  • FNAC

    fine needle aspiration cytology

  • FOXE1

    forkhead box E1

  • FSS

    frozen section substitute

  • FTA-ABS

    fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption

  • FTSG

    full-thickness skin graft

  • GA

    general anaesthetic

  • GCS

    Glasgow Coma Scale

  • GDC

    General Dental Council

  • GDP

    general dental practitioner

  • GIT

    gastrointestinal tract

  • GL12

    a transcription factor encoding gene

  • GMC

    General Medical Council

  • GMP

    general medical practitioner

  • GN

    glossopharyngeal neuralgia

  • GP

    general practitioner

  • GPP

    gingivoperiosteoplasty

  • GTN

    glyceryl trinitrate

  • H&E

    haematoxylin and eosin

  • HADS

    Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

  • HAI

    health-care associated infections

  • HAI

    hospital-acquired infection

  • HBO

    hyperbaric oxygen

  • HIV

    human immunodeficiency virus

  • HPT

    hyperparathyroidism

  • HPV

    human papilloma virus

  • HRQOL

    health-related quality of life

  • HRT

    hormone replacement therapy

  • HSV

    herpes simplex virus

  • IBS

    irritable bowel syndrome

  • ICP

    intra-cranial pressure

  • ICR

    idiopathic condylar resorption

  • ID

    inferior dental

  • IDB

    inferior dental bundle

  • IE

    infective endocarditis

  • IgA

    immunoglobulin A

  • IHC

    immunohistochemistry

  • IHD

    ischaemic heart disease

  • IJV

    internal jugular vein

  • IM

    intramuscular

  • IMF

    intermaxillary fixation

  • IMRT

    intensity-modulated radiotherapy

  • INR

    international normalized ratio

  • IRF6

    interferon regulatory gene 6

  • IRM

    intermediate restorative material

  • IRMER

    Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations

  • ITU

    intensive care

  • IV

    intravenous

  • IVS

    intravenous sedation

  • LA

    local anaesthesia

  • LDH

    lactate dehydrogenase

  • LMA

    laryngeal mask airway

  • LMN

    lower motor neurone

  • LMWH

    low-molecular-weight heparin

  • LN

    lymph node

  • LOH

    loss of heterozygosity

  • LP

    lichen planus

  • MACS

    minimal-access cranial suspension

  • MAL

    methyl aminolevulinate

  • MDP

    methylene diphosphonate

  • MDT

    multidisciplinary team

  • MH

    medical history

  • MI

    myocardial infarction

  • MM

    malignant melanoma

  • MRA

    magnetic resonance angiography

  • MRG

    median rhomboid glossitis

  • MRI

    magnetic resonance imaging

  • MRND

    modified radical neck dissection

  • MRSA

    methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

  • MS

    multiple sclerosis

  • MSX1

    MSH homeobox 1

  • MTA

    mineral trioxide aggregate

  • MTHFR

    methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

  • MVD

    microvascular decompression

  • NAM

    naso-alveolar moulding

  • NBM

    nil by mouth

  • ND

    neck dissection

  • NG

    nasogastric

  • NGT

    nasogastric tube

  • NHL

    non-Hodgkin lymphoma

  • NICE

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

  • NMSC

    non-melanoma skin cancer

  • NO

    nitrous oxide

  • NPSA

    National Patient Safety Agency

  • OA

    osteoarthritis

  • OAF

    oro-antral fistula

  • OCP

    oral contraceptive pill

  • od

    once a day

  • OH

    oral hygiene

  • OHI

    oral hygiene instruction

  • OM

    occipitomental

  • OME

    otitis media with effusion

  • OMENS

    Orbital distortion, Mandibular hypoplasia, Ear anomaly, Nerve involvement, Soft tissue deficiency

  • OMFS

    oral and maxillofacial surgery

  • ON

    osteonecrosis

  • ONJ

    osteonecrosis of the jaws

  • OPG/OPT

    orthopantomogram

  • ORIF

    open reduction internal fixation

  • ORN

    osteoradionecrosis

  • PA

    postero-anterior

  • PCR

    polymerase chain reaction

  • PDS

    polydioxanone suture

  • PDT

    photodynamic therapy

  • PE

    pulmonary embolus

  • PEG

    percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

  • PET

    positive emission tomography

  • PGL

    persistent generalized lymphadenopathy

  • PMMF

    pectoralis major myocutaneous flap

  • PMOL

    potentially malignant oral lesions

  • PMR

    polymyalgia rheumatica

  • po

    by mouth

  • PPI

    proton-pump inhibitor

  • PRP

    platelet-rich plasma

  • PSA

    pleomorphic salivary adenoma

  • PSO

    pre-surgical orthopaedics

  • PTH

    parathyroid hormone

  • PUVA

    psoralen and ultra-violet A

  • PVL

    proliferative verrucous leukoplakia

  • QLQ

    quality of life questionnaire

  • QOL

    quality of life

  • RA

    rheumatoid arthritis

  • RARA

    retinoic acid receptor alpha

  • RAPD

    relative afferent papillary defect

  • RCT

    randomized controlled trial

  • RED

    rigid external distractor

  • REM

    rapid eye movement

  • RIG

    radiologically inserted gastrostomy

  • RND

    radical neck dissection

  • ROU

    recurrent oral ulceration

  • RPE

    rapid palatal expansion

  • RRF

    retrograde root filling

  • RS

    respiratory system

  • RSTL

    relaxed skin tension line

  • RT

    radiotherapy

  • SACT

    systemic anti-cancer therapies

  • SALT

    speech and language therapy/therapist

  • SAN

    spinal accessory nerve

  • SARPE

    surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion

  • SATB2

    special AT-rich sequence-binding protein

  • SC

    subcutaneous

  • SCC

    squamous cell carcinoma

  • SCM

    sternocleidomastoid muscle

  • SEND

    selective elective neck dissection

  • SIDS

    sudden infant death syndrome

  • SK1

    small conductance calcium gated potassium channel

  • SLE

    systemic lupus erythematosus

  • SMAS

    superficial musculo-aponeurotic system

  • SMV

    submento-vertex

  • SNA

    point S to nasion to point A

  • SNB

    sentinel node biopsy/point S to nasion to point B

  • SND

    selective neck dissection

  • SPECT

    single photon emission tomography

  • SPRY2

    sprouty homolog 2

  • SS

    Sjögren’s syndrome

  • SSG

    split-skin graft

  • STD

    sodium tetradecyl sulphate

  • TB

    tuberculosis

  • TCA

    trichloroacetic acid

  • TED

    thromboembolic deterrent

  • TENS

    transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator

  • TGFA

    transforming growth factor alpha

  • TGFB

    transforming growth factor beta

  • TLA

    three-letter abbreviation

  • TMJ

    temporomandibular joint

  • TMJDS

    temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome

  • TN

    trigeminal neuralgia

  • TNF

    tumour necrosis factor

  • TNM

    tumour, lymph nodes, distant metastases system

  • TPD

    transpalatal distractor

  • TPHA

    Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay

  • TTP

    tender to percussion

  • Tx

    treatment

  • UCLP

    unilateral cleft lip and palate

  • UMN

    upper motor neurone

  • URT

    upper respiratory tract

  • URTI

    upper respiratory tract infection

  • USS

    ultrasound scanning

  • UV

    ultraviolet

  • VCF

    velocardiofacial syndrome

  • VDRL

    veneral disease reference laboratory

  • VPI

    velopharyngeal incompetence

  • VSS

    vertical subsigmoid osteotomy

  • VZV

    varicella zoster virus

  • WHO

    World Health Organization

  • WLE

    wide local excision

  • ZN

    Ziehl–Neelsen