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Sleep disorders 

Sleep disorders
Chapter:
Sleep disorders
Author(s):

Zenobia Zaiwalla

and Roo Killick

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199688395.003.0035
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date: 21 October 2020

As sleep medicine advances, there is increasing demand on services including neurophysiology to investigate sleep disorders. This chapter classifies the sleep disorders according to the main symptom presenting to the clinician, including excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, patients sleeping at the wrong times due to a circadian rhythm disorder, and movements or behaviours in sleep. The clinical presentation of common sleep disorders in each category are outlined, including obstructive sleep apnoea, narcolepsy, restless leg syndrome, periodic leg movements disorder, circadian rhythm disorders, and non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement parasomnias. The chapter discusses the overlap of symptoms in different sleep disorders, and the importance of selecting appropriate sleep studies, and recognizes the pitfalls, both clinical and in interpretation of sleep studies. The difficulties in diagnosing narcolepsy and differentiating from other causes of excessive daytime sleepiness, and when to investigate parasomnias is explained.

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