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Encephalopathy, central nervous system infections, and coma 

Encephalopathy, central nervous system infections, and coma
Chapter:
Encephalopathy, central nervous system infections, and coma
Author(s):

Michalis Koutroumanidis

and Robin Howard

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199688395.003.0032
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date: 05 April 2020

This chapter provides an overview of the indications for and the diagnostic and prognostic value of acute video-electroencephalogram (EEG) and continuous video-EEG monitoring in patients with encephalopathies, encephalitides, and coma. Particular emphasis is placed on the detection of non-convulsive seizures and non-convulsive status epilepticus secondary to acute and sub-acute cerebral insults, including post-cardiac arrest hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury, and on the related pitfalls and uncertainties. It also discusses key technical aspects of the EEG recording, including artefact identification and limitation, timing and type of external stimulation and assessment of EEG reactivity, and highlights the main relevant pitfalls. Finally, it explores the role of evoked potentials (EPs) in outcome prediction and the value of Cognitive EPs and quantitative EEG in the assessment of chronic disorders of consciousness.

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