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Disorders of single nerves, roots, and plexuses 

Disorders of single nerves, roots, and plexuses
Chapter:
Disorders of single nerves, roots, and plexuses
Author(s):

Kerry R. Mills

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199688395.003.0021
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date: 07 April 2020

The role of electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies in disorders of single nerve, root, and plexus lesions are discussed. The motor and sensory anatomy underpinning diagnosis is described and a scheme presented showing the key muscles to be examined using EMG to differentiate nerve, plexus, and root lesions. The main causes of mononeuritis multiplex, of either axonal degeneration or demyelinative pathology, are covered, including diabetic neuropathy, vasculitic neuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy with block, and the Lewis–Sumner syndrome. The confirmatory role of EMG and nerve conduction studies in the investigation of cervical and lumbar radiculopathies is highlighted as is the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation to differentiate cervical radiculopathy with myelopathy from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The neurophysiological hallmarks of traumatic cervical plexus lesions, including obstetric causes, inherited and acquired brachial neuritis, hereditary liability to pressure palsies, the cervical rib syndrome, and radiation plexopathy are also covered.

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