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  • ±

    plus/minus

  • =

    equal to

  • >

    more than

  • <

    less than

  • equal to or more than

  • equal to or less than

  • %

    per cent

  • β‎

    beta

  • γ‎

    gamma

  • £

    pound sterling

  • °C

    degree Celsius

  • ®

    registered

  • trademark

  • AAD

    adaptive aerosol delivery

  • AAT

    alpha-1 antitrypsin

  • ABG

    arterial blood gas

  • ABPA

    allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

  • ACBT

    active cycle of breathing technique

  • ACD

    alveolar capillary dysplasia

  • ACE

    angiotensin-converting enzyme

  • Ach

    acetylcholine

  • AChE

    acetylcholinesterase

  • AChR

    acetylcholine receptor

  • ACM

    Arnold–Chiari malformation

  • ACS

    acute chest syndrome

  • ADA

    adenosine deaminase

  • ADHD

    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  • AHI

    apnoea hypopnoea index

  • AIDS

    acquired immune deficiency syndrome

  • ALL

    acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

  • ALT

    alanine aminotransferase

  • ALTE

    apparent life-threatening event

  • ANA

    antinuclear antibody

  • ANCA

    antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

  • ANSD

    autonomic nervous system dysregulation

  • APTT

    activated partial thromboplastin time

  • ARDS

    acute respiratory distress syndrome

  • ART

    antiretroviral therapy

  • AS

    adolescent scoliosis

  • ASD

    atrial septal defect

  • AST

    aspartate aminotransferase

  • AT

    ataxia telangiectasia

  • atm

    atmosphere

  • ATP

    adenosine triphosphate

  • ATS

    American Thoracic Society

  • AXR

    abdominal X-ray

  • BAL

    bronchoalveolar lavage

  • BCG

    bacille Calmette–Guérin

  • BD

    Behçet’s disease

  • BE

    base excess

  • BHL

    bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy

  • BIPAP

    bilevel positive airway pressure

  • BMD

    bone mineral density; Becker muscular dystrophy

  • BMI

    body mass index

  • BO

    bronchiolitis obliterans

  • BOOP

    bronchiolitis obliterans and organizing pneumonia

  • BOS

    bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome

  • BPD

    bronchopulmonary dysplasia

  • bpm

    beats per minute

  • BSLT

    bilateral sequential lung transplantation

  • BTS

    British Thoracic Society

  • Ca

    calcium

  • c-ANCA

    cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

  • CBF

    ciliary beat frequency

  • CCAM

    congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation

  • CCHS

    congenital central hypoventilation syndrome

  • CDC

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  • CEA

    carcinoembryonic antigen

  • CF

    cystic fibrosis

  • CFC

    chlorofluorocarbon

  • CFRD

    cystic fibrosis-related diabetes

  • CGD

    chronic granulomatous disease

  • CHARGE

    coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities

  • ChAT

    choline acetyl transferase

  • chILD

    children’s interstitial and diffuse lung disease

  • CIP

    chronic interstitial pneumonitis

  • CLAD

    chronic lung allograft dysfunction

  • CLD

    chronic lung disease (of prematurity)

  • CLE

    congenital lobar emphysema

  • cmH2O

    centimetre of water

  • CMI

    cell-mediated immunity

  • CMV

    cytomegalovirus

  • CNS

    central nervous system

  • CO

    carbon monoxide

  • CO2

    carbon dioxide

  • COHb

    carboxyhaemoglobin

  • CPAM

    congenital pulmonary airway malformation

  • CPAP

    continuous positive airway pressure

  • CPF

    cough peak flow

  • CRP

    C-reactive protein

  • CSF

    cerebrospinal fluid

  • CT

    computed tomography

  • CVID

    common variable immune deficiency

  • CXR

    chest X-ray

  • DEXA

    dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

  • DIOS

    distal intestinal obstruction syndrome

  • DIP

    desquamative interstitial pneumonitis

  • dL

    decilitre

  • DMD

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy

  • DNA

    deoxyribonucleic acid

  • 2,3-DPG

    2,3-diphosphoglycerate

  • DPI

    dry powder inhaler

  • DRV

    daily recommended value

  • dsDNA

    double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid

  • EBV

    Epstein–Barr virus

  • ECG

    electrocardiogram

  • ECMO

    extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

  • EEG

    electroencephalography

  • ELISA

    enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

  • ELS

    extralobar sequestration

  • EM

    electron microscopy

  • EMG

    electromyography

  • ENaC

    epithelial sodium channel

  • ENT

    ear, nose, and throat

  • ERS

    European Respiratory Society

  • ESR

    erythrocyte sedimentation rate

  • ETT

    endotracheal tube

  • F

    French

  • FBC

    full blood count

  • FEES

    fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing

  • FEF

    forced expiratory flow

  • FENO

    fractional exhaled nitric oxide

  • FEV1

    forced expiratory volume in 1 second

  • FFP

    fresh frozen plasma

  • FGFR

    fibroblast growth factor receptor

  • FiO2

    fraction of inspired oxygen

  • FISH

    fluorescent in situ hybridization

  • FRC

    functional residual capacity

  • ft

    foot/feet

  • FVC

    forced vital capacity

  • g

    gram

  • GAG

    glucosaminoglycan

  • GAS

    group A Streptococcus

  • GBS

    Guillain–Barré syndrome

  • GCR

    glucocorticoid receptor

  • G-CSF

    granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

  • GD

    Gaucher’s disease

  • GH

    growth hormone

  • GI

    gastrointestinal

  • GINA

    Global Initiative for Asthma

  • GLI

    Global Lung Initiative

  • GM-CSF

    granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor

  • GOR

    gastro-oesophageal reflux

  • GORD

    gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

  • GP

    general practitioner

  • GTT

    glucose tolerance test

  • GVHD

    graft-versus-host disease

  • h

    hour

  • HAART

    highly active antiretroviral therapy

  • Hb

    haemoglobin

  • HBoV

    human bocavirus

  • HCG

    human chorionic gonadotrophin

  • HDU

    high dependency unit

  • HEPA

    high-efficiency particle arrest

  • HFCWO

    high-frequency chest wall oscillation

  • Hib

    Haemophilus influenzae type b

  • HIV

    human immunodeficiency virus

  • HLA

    human leucocyte antigen

  • HMP

    human metapneumovirus

  • HP

    hypersensitivity pneumonitis

  • HPV

    human papillomavirus

  • HRCT

    high-resolution computed tomography

  • HVA

    homovanillic acid

  • IC

    inspiratory capacity

  • ICU

    intensive care unit

  • Ig

    immunoglobulin

  • IGF

    insulin growth factor

  • IGT

    interferon-gamma test

  • IL

    interleukin

  • ILD

    interstitial lung disease

  • ILS

    intralobar sequestration

  • IM

    intramuscular

  • IPH

    idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis

  • IQ

    intelligence quotient

  • IRT

    immune-reactive trypsin

  • ITP

    idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

  • IU

    international unit

  • IUGR

    intrauterine growth retardation

  • IV

    intravenous

  • IVC

    inferior vena cava

  • IVIg

    intravenous immunoglobulin

  • JATD

    Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy

  • JCVI

    Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation

  • JDM

    juvenile dermatomyositis

  • JIA

    juvenile idiopathic arthritis

  • JORRP

    juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

  • K

    potassium

  • kcal

    kilocalorie

  • kCO

    transfer factor

  • kg

    kilogram

  • kPa

    kilopascal

  • L

    litre

  • LABA

    long-acting beta-agonist

  • LAM

    lymphangioleiomyomatosis

  • LCFA

    long-chain fatty acid

  • LCH

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis

  • LCI

    lung clearance index

  • LCT

    long-chain triglyceride

  • LDH

    lactate dehydrogenase

  • LIP

    lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis

  • LOW

    late-onset wheeze

  • LRTI

    lower respiratory tract infection

  • LTEC

    laryngotracheo-oesophageal cleft

  • LTOT

    long-term oxygen therapy

  • m

    metre

  • MBC

    maximum breathing capacity

  • MCFA

    medium-chain fatty acid

  • MCT

    medium-chain triglyceride

  • MDI

    metered-dose inhaler

  • MDR

    multidrug resistance

  • mEq

    milli equivalent

  • mg

    milligram

  • Mg

    magnesium

  • MG

    myasthenia gravis

  • min

    minute

  • mL

    millilitre

  • MLS

    middle lobe syndrome

  • mm

    millimetre

  • mmHg

    millimetre of mercury

  • mmol

    millimole

  • mph

    mile per hour

  • MPS

    mucopolysaccharidoses

  • MRA

    magnetic resonance angiography

  • MRI

    magnetic resonance imaging

  • mRNA

    messenger ribonucleic acid

  • MRSA

    meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

  • MSSA

    meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus

  • MTB

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  • mTOR

    mammalian target of rapamycin

  • Na

    sodium

  • NBT

    nitroblue tetrazolium

  • NEB

    neuroepithelial body

  • NEHI

    neuroendocrine hyperplasia of infancy

  • NG

    nasogastric

  • NHL

    non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

  • NHS

    National Health Service

  • NICE

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

  • NIH

    National Institutes of Health

  • NIPPV

    non-invasive positive pressure ventilation

  • NIV

    non-invasive ventilation

  • NK

    natural killer

  • nmol

    nanomole

  • NO

    nitric oxide

  • NPA

    nasopharyngeal aspirate

  • NPARM

    non-polyalanine repeat mutation

  • NPD

    Niemann–Pick disease

  • NREM

    non-rapid eye movement

  • NSAID

    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

  • NSIP

    non-specific interstitial pneumonitis

  • NTM

    non-tuberculous mycobacteria

  • OGTT

    oral glucose tolerance test

  • OP

    organizing pneumonia

  • OSA

    obstructive sleep apnoea

  • PAA

    pulmonary artery aneurysm

  • p-ANCA

    perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

  • PAP

    pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

  • PARM

    polyalanine repeat expansion mutation

  • PAS

    periodic acid–Schiff

  • PBMC

    peripheral blood mononuclear cell

  • PC

    pectus carinatum

  • PCD

    primary ciliary dyskinesia

  • PCP

    pneumocystis pneumonia

  • PCR

    polymerase chain reaction

  • PCV

    pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

  • PE

    pectus excavatum; pulmonary embolism

  • PEEP

    positive end-expiratory pressure

  • PEFR

    peak expiratory flow rate

  • PEP

    positive expiratory pressure

  • PIE

    pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia

  • PIG

    pulmonary interstitial glycogenesis

  • PIV

    parainfluenza virus

  • PL

    pulmonary lymphangiectasia

  • PLMD

    periodic limb movement disorder

  • PLMS

    periodic limb movement in sleep

  • PMA

    post-menstrual age

  • PMD

    Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease

  • PNEC

    pulmonary neuroendocrine cell

  • PNET

    primitive neuroectodermal tumour

  • PNP

    purine nucleoside phosphorylase

  • ppb

    part per billion

  • PPHN

    persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

  • PPV

    pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

  • PSG

    polysomnography

  • PTH

    parathyroid hormone

  • PTLD

    post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

  • PW

    persistent wheeze

  • PWS

    Prader–Willi syndrome

  • RADS

    reactive airways dysfunction syndrome

  • RAST

    radioallergosorbent test

  • RCT

    randomized controlled trial

  • RDS

    respiratory distress syndrome

  • REM

    rapid eye movement

  • RhF

    rheumatoid factor

  • RLS

    restless legs syndrome

  • RNA

    ribonucleic acid

  • RPO

    re-expansion pulmonary oedema

  • RSS

    rigid spine syndrome

  • RSV

    respiratory syncitial virus

  • RV

    right ventricular; residual volume

  • s

    second

  • SaO2

    oxygen saturation

  • SARS

    severe acute respiratory syndrome

  • SARS-CoV

    severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus

  • SC

    subcutaneous

  • SCD

    sickle-cell disease

  • SCID

    severe combined immunodeficiency

  • SCT

    stem cell transplantation

  • SD

    standard deviation

  • SIDS

    sudden infant death syndrome

  • SIT

    specific immunotherapy

  • SLE

    systemic lupus erythematosus

  • SMA

    spinal muscular atrophy

  • SMARD

    spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress

  • SPA

    suprapubic aspiration

  • SPB

    surfactant protein B

  • SPC

    summary of product characteristics

  • SPT

    skin prick test

  • SSRI

    selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

  • SVC

    superior vena cava

  • TAPVD

    total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

  • TB

    tuberculosis

  • TBI

    total body irradiation

  • TBM

    tuberculous meningitis; tracheobronchomalacia

  • TCS

    Treacher Collins syndrome

  • TEW

    transient episodic wheeze

  • Th

    T-helper

  • TIM

    target inhalation mode

  • TLC

    total lung capacity

  • TLCO

    total lung carbon monoxide

  • TMP-SMZ

    trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole

  • TNF

    tumour necrosis factor

  • TOF

    tracheo-oesophageal fistula

  • tPa

    tissue plasminogen activator

  • TPE

    tuberculous pleural effusion

  • TPN

    total parenteral nutrition

  • TRALI

    transfusion-related acute lung injury

  • TSNS

    tumours of the sympathetic nervous system

  • TST

    tuberculin skin test

  • TTN

    transient tachypnoea of the newborn

  • TU

    tuberculin unit

  • U

    unit

  • U & E

    urea and electrolyte

  • UK

    United Kingdom

  • UIP

    usual interstitial pneumonitis

  • URTI

    upper respiratory tract infection

  • USA

    United States of America

  • VAP

    ventilator-associated pneumonia

  • VATS

    video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery

  • VC

    vital capacity

  • VCD

    vocal cord dysfunction

  • VEGF

    vascular endothelial growth factor

  • VEPTR

    vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib

  • VHC

    valved holding chamber

  • VMA

    vanillylmandelic acid

  • VPI

    velopharyngeal incompetence

  • V/Q

    ventilation/perfusion

  • VSD

    ventricular septal defect

  • VZV

    varicella-zoster virus

  • WASP

    Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein

  • WBC

    white blood count

  • WG

    Wegener’s granulomatosis

  • WHO

    World Health Organization

  • XDT-TB

    extreme drug resistance

  • ZIG

    zoster immunoglobulin