Show Summary Details
Page of

Monitoring and investigations in the intensive cardiac care unit 

Monitoring and investigations in the intensive cardiac care unit
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2016. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 12 November 2019

Haemodynamic instability in acute cardiac care may be related to various mechanisms, including hypovolaemia and heart and/or vascular dysfunction. Although acute heart failure patients are often admitted for dyspnoea, many mechanisms can be involved, including left ventricular diastolic and/or systolic dysfunction and/or right ventricular dysfunction. Many epidemiological studies show that clinical signs at admission, morbidity, and mortality differ between the main scenarios of acute heart failure: left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, right ventricular dysfunction, and cardiogenic shock. Although echocardiography often helps to assess the mechanism of cardiac dysfunction, it cannot be considered as a monitoring tool. In some cases (in particular, in cases of refractory shock secondary to both vascular and heart dysfunction or in cases of refractory haemodynamic instability associated with severe hypoxaemia), pulmonary artery catheter can help to assess and monitor cardiovascular status and to evaluate response to treatments. Last, macro- and microvascular dysfunctions are also important determinants of haemodynamic instability.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.