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ST-segment elevation MI 

ST-segment elevation MI
ST-segment elevation MI

Adrian P. Cheong

, Gabriel Steg

, and Stefan K. James



Major updates made throughout chapter

4 new figures

Updated 2 Tables

20 new references

Updated on 22 February 2018. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 11 July 2020

Acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation is a common and dramatic manifestation of coronary artery disease. It is caused by the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery, leading to its total thrombotic occlusion and resultant ischaemia and necrosis of downstream myocardium. The diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is based on a syndrome of ischaemic chest pain symptoms, associated with typical ST-segment elevation on the electrocardiogram and an eventual rise in biomarkers of myocardial necrosis. The treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is focused on re-establishing blood flow in the coronary artery involved, preferably by percutaneous coronary intervention, or by pharmacological thrombolysis in the case of expected lengthy time delays or lack of availability of facilities. Early mortality from ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction can be attributed to the sequelae or complications of myocardial ischaemia, or complications related to therapy. The former include arrhythmias (such as ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation), mechanical complications (such as ventricular free wall, septal, and mitral chordal rupture), and pump failure leading to cardiogenic shock. The latter includes haemorrhagic complications and coronary stent thrombosis. Given that myocardial necrosis is a critically time-dependent process, the organization of an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction care system and adherence to the latest clinical trial evidence and guidelines are crucial to ensure that patients are treated in an optimal manner.

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