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Emergency topics

Normal values

Despite national efforts to standardise laboratory testing and reporting,1 exact ranges vary between hospitals, these figures serve as a guide.

Haematology see Quick Reference Material [link]

Hb–men

130–180g/L

WBC

4–11 × 109/l

Hb–women

115–160g/L

2.0–7.5 × 109/l (40–75%)

MCV

76–96fl

1.3–3.5 × 109/l (20–45%)

Plts

150–400 × 109/l

0.04–0.44 × 109/l (1–6%)

Ferritin

12–200micrograms/l

B12

197–866pg/ml

TIBC

42–80µmol/l

Folate

2–20micrograms/l

Clotting see Quick Reference Material [link]

INR

0.8–1.2

APTTr

0.8–1.2

PT

11–16s

APTT

35–45s

Fibrinogen

1.5–4.0g/l

D–dimer

<0.3mg/ml (<300ng/ml)

U+Es see Quick Reference Material [link]

Na+

133–146mmol/l

Ca2+ (adjusted)

2.2–2.6mmol/l

K+

3.5–5.3mmol/l

PO43–

0.8–1.5mmol/l

Urea

2.5–7.8mmol/l

Mg2+

0.7–1.0 mmol/l

Creatinine

70–150µmol/l

HCO3

22–29mmol/l

Osmolality

275–295mOsmol/kg

Cl

95–108mmol/l

LFTs see Quick Reference Material [link]

ALP

30–130units/l

Bilirubin

3–21micrograms/l

ALT

3–35units/l

Albumin

35–50g/l

γ‎GT

10–55units/l

Total protein

60–80g/l

Other

Amylase

0–120units/l

CRP

<5mg/l

Fasting glucose

3.5–6.0mmol/l

ESR

<20mm/h

Immunoglobulins

24–37g/l

CK

25–195units/l

Cholesterol

<6mmol/l

LDH

70–250units/l

Triglycerides

0.5–1.9mmol/l

PSA

0–4ng/ml

Blood gases see Quick Reference Material [link]

pH

7.35–7.45

PaO2

10.6–13.3kPa

Base excess

±2mmol/l

PaCO2

4.7–6.0kPa

Emergency adult drug doses

Only use this page if you are ALS/ILS trained; otherwise contact a senior and turn to the appropriate emergency page.

Doses are appropriate for an otherwise healthy 70kg adult. ‘Max freq’ shows maximum frequency drugs should be used in an emergency.

Dose

Max freq

Route

Cardiac and shock

Adenosine

6, 12, 12mg

5min

Fast IV

Adrenaline, anaphylaxis

0.5ml 1:1000 (0.5mg)

5min

IM

Adrenaline, arrest

10ml 1:10,000 (1mg)

73min

IV

Atropine, bradycardia

0.5mg, 3mg max

1min

IV

Atropine, arrest

3mg (no longer recommended)

Once

IV

Aspirin

300mg

Once

PO

Calcium gluconate 10%

10ml in 2min, 50ml max

15min

IV

Clopidogrel

300mg

Once

PO

Diamorphine

2.5mg

5min

IV

Digoxin infusion

500micrograms in 30min (Quick Reference Material[link])

Once

IV

Morphine

5mg

5min

IV

Verapamil

5mg in 2min, 15mg max

5min

IV

Respiratory

Aminophylline1

5mg/kg in 20 min

Once

IV

Furosemide

40–120mg (1mg/kg)

Once

IV

GTN infusion

10–200micrograms/min Systolic >90

Infusion

IV

Isosorbide dinitrate

2–10mg/h Systolic >90

Infusion

IV

Hydrocortisone

200mg

Once

IV

Ipratropium

500mcg

4h

Neb

Magnesium

2g (8mmol) over 15 min

Once

IV

Salbutamol, infusion

250micrograms over 10 min

Once

IV

Salbutamol, neb

5mg

Continuous

Neb

Neuro and epilepsy

Glucose 10%, 20%, 50%

200, 100, 50ml respectively

Check glucose

IV

Diazepam

10mg, 30mg max

5min

IV/PR

Lorazepam

4mg, 12mg max

5min

IV

Naloxone

0.4mg, 10mg max

3min

IV

Phenytoin infusion

20mg/kg at <50mg/min

Once

IV

1 Do not give loading dose of IV aminophylline if patient taking oral theophylline (unless plasma levels known).

Adult Advanced Life Support Algorithm (2010)


Adult Advanced Life Support algorithm; 2010 guidelines.
Reproduced with the kind permission of the Resuscitation Council (UK).

Adult Advanced Life Support algorithm; 2010 guidelines.

Reproduced with the kind permission of the Resuscitation Council (UK).