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Chance variation 

Chance variation
Chance variation

Mark Elwood

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date: 18 October 2019

This chapter explains chance variation and statistical tests, including discrete and continuous measures, the concept of significance, one and two sided test, exact tests, precision and confidence limits. It shows tests of differences in proportions and chi-square tests, the Mantel-Haenszel test, and calculation of confidence limits, for simple tables and for stratified data. It covers heterogeneity tests, multiplicative and additive models, ordered exposure variables and tests of trend. It explains statistical tests for matched studies and in multivariate models. Multiple testing, the Bonferroni correction, issues of hypothesis testing and hypothesis generation, and subgroup analyses are discussed. Stopping rules and repeated testing in trials is covered. It explains how to calculate study power and the necessary size of the study. The chapter describes time to event analysis, including survival curves, product-limit and actuarial or life-table methods, and the calculation of confidence limits, relative survival ratios, the log rank test with control for confounding, and multivariate analysis.

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