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Introduction 

Introduction
Chapter:
Introduction
Author(s):

Mark Elwood

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199682898.003.0001
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date: 18 September 2019

This chapter shows the plan of the book. Later chapters will cover the definition of causation, study designs that can demonstrate causation, how results are presented, the interpretation of studies stressing the non-causal explanations of observation bias, confounding, and chance variation. Then come positive aspects of causation, the Bradford-Hill principles, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and an overall scheme for assessing studies and diagnosing causation. Further chapters present appraisals of six published studies: randomised trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies. An appendix presents statistical methods with examples.

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