Show Summary Details
Page of

Neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neurophysiological bases of waking and sleeping 

Neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neurophysiological bases of waking and sleeping
Neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neurophysiological bases of waking and sleeping

Barbara E. Jones

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 24 October 2020

Neurons distributed through the reticular core of the brainstem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain and giving rise to ascending projections to the cortex or descending projections to the spinal cord promote the changes in cortical activity and behavior that underlie the sleep–wake cycle and three states of waking, NREM (slow wave) sleep, and REM (paradoxical) sleep. Forming the basic units of these systems, glutamate and GABA cell groups are heterogeneous in discharge profiles and projections, such that different subgroups can promote cortical activation (wake/REM(PS)-active) versus cortical deactivation (NREM(SWS)-active) by ascending influences or behavioral arousal with muscle tone (wake-active) versus behavioral quiescence with muscle atonia (NREM/REM(PS)-active) by descending influences. These different groups are in turn regulated by neuromodulatory systems, including cortical activation (wake/REM(PS)-active acetylcholine neurons), behavioral arousal (wake-active noradrenaline, histamine, serotonin, and orexin neurons), and behavioral quiescence (NREM/REM(PS)-active MCH neurons). By different projections, chemical neurotransmitters and discharge profiles, distinct cell groups thus act and interact to promote cyclic oscillations in cortical activity and behavior forming the sleep-wake cycle and states.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.