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Central sleep apnea and hypoventilation syndromes 

Central sleep apnea and hypoventilation syndromes
Central sleep apnea and hypoventilation syndromes

Mithri R. Junna

, Bernardo J. Selim

, and Timothy I. Morgenthaler

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date: 05 December 2020

Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) may occur in a variety of ways. While obstructive sleep apnea is the most common of these, this chapter reviews the most common types of SDB that occur independently of upper airway obstruction. In many cases, there is concurrent upper airway obstruction and neurological respiratory dysregulation. Thus, along with attempts to correct the underlying etiologies (when present), stabilization of the upper airway is most often combined with flow generators (noninvasive positive pressure ventilation devices) that modulate the inadequate ventilatory pattern. Among these devices, when continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) alone does not allow correction of SDB, adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) is increasingly used for non-hypercapnic types of central sleep apnea (CSA), while bilevel PAP in spontaneous-timed mode (BPAP-ST) is more often reserved for hypercapnic CSA/alveolar hypoventilation syndromes. Coordination of care among neurologists, cardiologists, and sleep specialists will often benefit such patients.

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